Aflatoxin is a known carcinogen, expelled from naturally occurring fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. In this experiment, different concentrations of aflatoxin were placed in samples of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and observed for five days. Four samples of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were prepared: a Control (no aflatoxin), 10 μmol/g aflatoxin B 1 , 50 μmol/g aflatoxin B 1 , and 100 μmol/g aflatoxin B 1 . The change in cell number was determined by cell counting. The results showed that aflatoxin B 1 in a 100 μmol/g concentration terminated the breast cancer cells; while the other concentrations decreased the number of breast cancer cells in comparison to the Control. In addition, the morphology of all samples was examined, with pronounced differences between the treated and untreated samples.
Lack of electricity and clean water, in many developing parts of the world, has led to the development of unconventional technologies capable of addressing both issues simultaneously; a microbial fuel cell is one such technology. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a one or two-chamber device which uses microbes to produce a stable current. Although the concept of using bacteria to produce electricity has been identified many years ago, only recently has this technology been significantly developed for application as an alternative source of energy. In addition to electricity production, microbial fuel cells have also been shown to effectively oxidize organic matter in wastewater, thereby acting as treating agents. The range of power densities obtained from various MFC configurations is anywhere from 0.1 mW/m 2 to 1.5 W/m 2 , however, an effective balance between costs and current output is required before MFCs can be used on a large scale. This study aims to compare the current producing ability of a low-cost MFC with a conventional MFC; this project also highlights the wastewater treating ability of a low-cost MFC.
Air purifiers are marketed to asthmatics and others to improve breathing. However, some air purifiers emit harmful ozone-a key component of smog. This study examines the hypothesis that ozone-generating air purifiers and other household devices that generate ozone may have a negative effect on pulmonary function. According to a recent study by the California Air Resources Board, 10% of California households own an air purifier that may produce ozone. No published studies on the direct pulmonary effects of these air purifiers have been found on Medline. The investigator used an ozone sensor to measure the amount of ozone generated from several types of air purifiers, food purifiers, and assorted ionizing household devices in a home environment. A room air purifier, personal air purifier, and food purifier, respectively, produced concentrations of ozone near the device of approximately 15 times, 9 times, and 3 times higher than a Stage 3 Smog Alert (range of error 20%). A microspirometer was used to measure pulmonary function before and after exposure to each household device (range of error 3%). A two-hour exposure to a room air purifier caused a statistically significant drop in an important measure of pulmonary function (FEV 1 /FVC) among asthmatic subjects, but not among the whole study sample (P<0.05) (n=24). There was a mean decrease’ of 11% in the FEV 1 /FVC ratio among the asthmatics. A three-hour exposure to a personal air purifier resulted in a statistically significant reduction in pulmonary function among the whole study sample, as well as in the asthmatic subset (P<0.05) (n=10). The mean reduction in FEV 1 /FVC ratio among the whole study sample was 9.6%, while it was 22.8% among the asthmatics. One asthmatic individual experienced a 29% drop accompanied by a severe asthma attack. A food purifier resulted in a reduction in the FEV 1 /FVC ratio of 4.2 and 9.6% among the whole study sample and the asthmatic subset, respectively (P<0.05) (n=32). Ozone-generating air purifiers and food purifiers that use ozone may impair pulmonary function.