Honey: sweet, delicious and great on toast! After proving a hit in our kitchen cupboards, honey is now making its way into our medicine cabinets too; next time you have a sore throat you may be reaching for the honey jar. This study looks at three different types of honey and their medicinal qualities against bacteria. Standard processed honey, unprocessed honey and medicinal grade Manuka honey all killed samples of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, proving all of these honeys to have antibacterial properties. The Manuka honey, however, had a greater antibacterial effect against both bacteria, suggesting that Manuka honey is the best for medicinal use.
In the recent decade, Virtual Reality (VR) has become more common through a range of systems including computer-powered head-mounted displays (HMDs) and smartphone-powered headsets. It has presented both designers and developers alike with a new field filled with unexplored potential. In this article, a new and inexpensive approach to VR is explored, allowing entry-level smartphones to run powerful computer-based VR experiences wirelessly through Bluetooth with relative high levels of performance. The project was recognised as a European and African Finalist in the Google Science Fair 2015.
In this article I will explain what RNAi is, the genetic mechanisms behind it and why it deserves the considerable attention it has been receiving. Expanding on these basic mechanisms, I will go onto explore some of the latest RNAi trials involving Huntington’s disease and cancer. I will highlight the complications associated with the treatment of these complex diseases and importantly, why RNAi is seen as a viable therapeutic pathway.
The decline in interest for science by the general public can be explained by the human tendency to perceive logarithimically rather than linearly. Science education can address this problem to alter the destiny of science.
In this article, I will explore the complexity of lung cancer and why it is classed as one of the most deadly cancers. As well as this, I will explain how different types of lung cancer are classified depending on the cells present in tumours and how the classification affects the treatment a patient is given. Furthermore, I will look at the current treatments for lung cancer and how they are used. And last but not least, I will explain what Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) are and how they may be able to help scientists diagnose and treat lung cancer in the near future.
This paper explores and proposes a more efficient method for the synthesis of organic compounds using a technique of process intensification – condensing synthesis and purification into one step. Studies were conducted regarding the production of acetylsalicylic acid (more commonly known as Aspirin) and a hypothetical installation was designed. The results are of significance as they improve upon current production methods, can be used in the synthesis of many different chemicals and could have direct applications to chemical production on an industrial scale.
What is Hypoplastic left heart syndrome? Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare congenital heart defect which occurs in approximately 1 in 5000 babies. The term ‘hypoplastic’ refers to the underdevelopment of a tissue or an organ. Therefore HLHS involves the underdevelopment, or sometimes absence, of left-sided heart structures. For example, the left ventricle, […]
This article will be a primer on the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the TEM machine: its history, components and applications.
There are many parts of the modern world that seem to run on a strange type of magic – a sorcery based on doped silicates and rare earth metals. With a little attention, this magic looses it’s sheen and the sufficiently advanced technology behind it is revealed. In this article I will cover how some of the most fundamental parts of modern computing can be demystified.
Abstract Working with Police Scotland, Physics students from Lockerbie Academy took part in a simulated crash investigation, based on a real crash that occurred in the local area. We used our knowledge of kinematics and problem solving skills to determine the cause of the collision. To do this we took measurements of displacement and deceleration […]
Through this discussion I wanted to explore the impacts of the principle of free health care at the point of delivery. This is a fundamental principle of our National Health Service and as such it is essential to consider the implications of this for our health system and within the wider health service.
In this report I am aiming to identify the extent to which artificial colourings affect behaviour. I aim to do this by looking at previous studies that have been conducted and by analysing them. I also aim to look at a brief history of artificial colourings. In the second half of the report I aim to look at how the impact artificial colourings have on behaviour could be reduced, this will be done by looking at methods that are currently in place throughout the world and by suggesting other methods hat could be used.
Artificial colours are one of the many different types of additives us, as humans come into contact with in our everyday lives. Artificial colours are mainly added to food products in order to make them more aesthetically pleasing. Artificial colourings are also used for many other reasons, for example in the fashion industry for dying clothes and in paint. A topic that has been in and out of the news worldwide many times and has been researched in great detail by scientists across the globe for many years is the topic of additives and their effects on behaviour and more importantly, artificial colours. Artificial colours that are found in food are just one of the many concerns of parents in the 21st century. This is because they have been lead to believe that artificial colours are a major causal factor of behavioural issues such as hyperactivity and aggression in children, and that they could also strongly influence a child with ADHD’s levels of hyperactivity and learning abilities. But, how much of this is true? To what extent do artificial colours have an effect on behaviour? Could this be reduced? Are there more suitable alternatives without sacrificing the vivid colours? Or could we completely eradicate the use of artificial colour in our everyday lives?
Animal experimentation, which first started its origins in Greece, has been around in the world for a long time. One of the oldest examples of this was in 500BC, when a philosopher called Alcmaeon of Croton showed the function of the optic nerve by cutting through the optic nerves of live animals, which then resulted in them going blind . Today, we take using animals, such as primates, in experiments for granted. In Europe, 10,000 experiments are carried out on primates, whereas in the USA alone, 60,000 experiments on primates occur . This testing on primates provides people with new medicines and vaccines, which are then used to cure people, or even save lives. So, surely testing on primates can only be a good thing, since without them life expectancy in the world may not be as high as it is today and instead many humans could die? Recently, there has been news about how dolphins are being classified as non-human persons by scientists, due to the great features they possess, and it is leading to them not being in captivity. So, it may lead people to believe, that if primates also possess these qualities, surely making them endure experimentation is wrong . I feel that it would be interesting to try and tackle this question, because it may help people in the world decide finally whether actually primates should be used as it is hugely debated thing in the world. My main objective of this article is to try and decide whether primates should be used and, if not, what the alternatives are. I chose this topic as I found it fascinating as well as important, since today many NHP’s (Non-Human Primates) are forced into enduring experiments which can sometimes be cruel and I personally felt, as if it would be interesting to find out whether or not the fact that primates create medicine that saves people’s lives outweighs the fact that it goes against what many primates free will. Not only this but I also felt, that studying this would help me to build on my current interest of science, as well as focus on the ethics side of the question and find out how medicine is actually fully developed before it goes on to animal testing. I have also tried to explore if scientists are trying to exploit other alternatives, which could help to reduce the amount of primates used for experimental testing significantly.
Working with Police Scotland, Physics students from Lockerbie Academy took part in a simulated crash investigation, based on a real crash that occurred in the local area. We used our knowledge of kinematics and problem solving skills to determine the cause of the collision. To do this we took measurements of displacement and deceleration and calculated the initial velocity of the car. The investigation found that the driver was at least partly to blame for driving too fast, therefore emphasising the importance of staying within the speed limit.
This paper describes a low temperature plasma physics and visible spectroscopy experiment set-up and run by A level physics students. Results are presented from the measurement of the breakdown voltage for an argon plasma, successfully measured for a wide range of pressures. The minimum breakdown voltage from these results has been used to find an experimental value of ionisation energy for argon. In addition, the results from a visible spectroscopy system are also presented, using a fibre optic array coupled to a monochromator and microchannel. The first set of results from this study is shown as a plot of relative intensity as a function of wavelength.
Human papillomavirus related cancers is a modern challenge, affecting mainly the younger generation. High-risk HPV causes 99% of cervical cancer and many other cancers of vagina, vulva, penis, anus and oral cavity. Most commonly, they cause precancerous changes in the cells of cervix which can be detected on smear test and effectively treated. Cancer of the cervix is therefore preventable. The burden and cost of HPV-associated disease and cancer is an important public health problem. Reducing the burden of HPV-associated cancer and disease through vaccination requires an integrated approach that includes clinical medicine, public health, and public policy at a global level. With the introduction of HPV vaccination against cervical cancer, the war on HPV has started but there is still a long way to go, especially with other cancers which are on the rise. There are clinical trials looking at effectiveness of HPV vaccines against other cancers and also on therapeutic vaccines to be used in people with HPV positive conditions. There is however a strong need to educate the younger generation about healthy and responsible sexual practices and increase awareness of HPV related diseases and cancers, in men as well as women.
Sir Isaac Newton and his colleagues enjoyed studying and expanding the supposedly unequivocal laws of physics, such as Newton’s three laws of motion. During the twentieth century, theories such as Einstein’s relativity and those in quantum mechanics turned Newton’s world upside down. Today, a lot more is known about quantum mechanics. However, there is a still an unknown world between Newton’s and Feynman’s. One example of this gap is Schrodinger’s infamous cat.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that are highly expressed in tumours and are thought to have an important role in the advancement of cancer. Of particular interest is their contribution to metastasis – the spread of cancer around the body. As a result, they are currently being researched with the endeavour to develop new anticancer agents, with inhibitors of MMPs considered to be a viable option for future use in chemotherapy. Furthermore, these enzymes could be used to improve the way in which the body metabolises anti-cancer drugs, a method in which the drugs are only activated in the presence of MMPs in the tumour, and so reducing the potential for harmful side effects.