by Nicola Bonardi Rivard There’s only one thing that remains universal in every science classroom around the world: the sometimes-tattered canvas with the 118 elements in their ordered squares. The periodic table is a universal symbol of scientific ingenuity and complexity, but its founder is often left in the shadows. This month, we’ve decided to …


Dark Matter Candidates and their Detection

The existence of Dark Matter is widely accepted in the scientific community, but its identity is still an enigma. Numerous independent gravitational observations seen cannot be explained by the Newtonian mechanics of the visible mass. A rather simple hypothesis suggests the existence of new particle or particles, termed as Dark Matter, to give a rationale for these observations. This paper seeks to give a comprehensive overview on the existing theories of dark matter candidates and the status of the dark matter search. This review begins with a description of the Standard Model of Elementary Particles followed by a brief discussion on the principle problems unexplained by this model. We then compare the theoretical predictions with the actual galactic rotation curve of the Andromeda Galaxy and its scientific implications, supporting the claim that dark matter exists. We investigate the prominent dark matter models including WIMPs, Axions, and Sterile Neutrinos, critically examining each of their theoretical motivations, production mechanisms, characteristics, and interactions with the standard model. We also explore a wide range of their direct and indirect detection methods- particle colliders, astronomical observations and data, advanced detectors, and many more- in detail. Furthermore, we give the reader insights into selective experiments being conducted that claim to give possible signals of dark matter. We conclude our paper with a discussion of contemporary and upcoming experiments to detect dark matter. Future experimentation will be critical to the development of this field. Old and new candidates will inevitably be ruled-out and developed as dark matter theory and detection methods continue to progress forward.

Scientist Of The Month (November 2022) – Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr was a Danish physicist, born in Copenhagen on October 7, 1885. He made notable contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. Bohr established the distinct energy levels of electrons and that electrons rotate in stable orbits around the …

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Kien Nguyen Huy Trung CLICK CHEMISTRY AND BIOORTHOGONAL CHEMISTRY I. Award: The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the 2022 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten Meldal and K. Barry Sharpless “for the development of click chemistry and bioorthogonal chemistry”. II. About 2022 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: The theme of the 2022 …

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Treating Cancer With Precision: Molecular Targets for Therapeutic Interaction in Cancer Cells

Author: Jay Ann Kan     Abstract: Cancer, caused by spontaneous mutations, remains a lingering possibility in the lives of many. According to the National Cancer Institute, the risk of developing cancer in a lifetime is 42% and 38% for men and women respectively. However, as the options for cancer treatment progress, the treatments developed …

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International Day of Women and Girls in Science Highlight: Lise Meitner

Sahaana Vijay Abstract As of October 2021, there are 441 operational nuclear reactors in roughly 30 nations.[1] These nuclear reactors  generate power through nuclear fission, which earned Otto Hahn, a German chemist, the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1944.[2] While the prize was unshared, Hahn did not discover nuclear fission alone; he and his long-term colleagues, physicist …

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