Category archives for Biology

How Does The Human Body React to Being in Space?

How Does The Human Body React to Being in Space? Introduction Following on from Issue 19 which looked at the International Space Station (ISS) and Tim Peake’s life and work on it1, this article aims to look into the fundamental ways that an astronaut’s biological systems change in space, down to the level of their […]

Exercise Induced Pulmonary Haemorrhage in Horses

Bleeding, or Exercise Induced Pulmonary Haemorrhage (EIPH), is one of the most common problems experienced by racehorses and can only really, by clinical evaluation, be identified through loss of blood from the nose, which to most would appear relatively serious. [1] (Figure a.) (Figure a.) However, there is evidence to suggest that nearly every racehorse […]

Exploring Epigenetics: DNA methylation and cancer

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We all know the environments physical effects upon an organism are apparent, but have you ever considered what effect it has upon us on a genetic level. This is a difficult concept that has intrigued many scientists and encouraged them research into it further. It is only recently that our basis of knowledge and the technological advancements […]

Is it more important to understand the mind or the brain?

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  Here, we are faced with the fixed, biological complexity of the brain and the intricate concept, which is open to vast influential change, of one’s mind. The question proposes the task of whether the understanding of the brain or that of the mind holds more significance. However, what this discussion essentially requires is the […]

The Terrible Truth About Tanning

I’m sure that everyone reading this has, at least once in their life, visited the Beach during the Summer. During your visit to the Beach you will apply some Sun Cream, swim in the Ocean, have an Ice-cream etc. Finally as you are heading home you might have noticed that you have tanned a small […]

The Boiling River

I had the pleasure of interviewing geoscientist and National Geographic Explorer, Andrés Ruzo on the publication of his first book, The Boiling River. Many of us have childhood dreams, perhaps of long lost places, imaginary worlds we might once be lucky enough to visit. We might be told stories, ones which we believe at the […]

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) This new revolutionary genome editing tool will enable the elimination of many genetic diseases. It could also be used to modify crops, screen for cancer genes, eradicate virus’ and for genome engineering. This has sparked debate on whether ethically, this could lead to a slippery slope on what […]

How do recreational drugs work in the brain?

The brain is the most complicated organ in the human body and is integral to human life. It is made up of a network of billions of brain cells, called neurones, which communicate with each other by sending and receiving electrical signals or chemical neurotransmitters. These chemicals attach to receptors on the receiving neurone which […]

The Brain Observatory

Until about 40 years ago it was only possible to study the workings of the brain of a living individual by their outward appearance and proposed symptoms. In 1977 the MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scanner was developed and has since revolutionised the way in which we can investigate the anatomy and structure of the brain […]

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

What is Hypoplastic left heart syndrome? Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare congenital heart defect which occurs in approximately 1 in 5000 babies. The term ‘hypoplastic’ refers to the underdevelopment of a tissue or an organ. Therefore HLHS involves the underdevelopment, or sometimes absence, of left-sided heart structures. For example, the left ventricle, […]

Experience, Care, Protect: The Value of Scientific Expeditions

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In an exciting new partnership with the British Exploring Society, we’re delighted to bring you their first guest post, James Borrell, a conservation biologist with a passion for challenging expeditions, looks at why scientific expeditions are so important.

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot What is Tetralogy of Fallot? Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect (one which is present at birth.) In fact, it is one of the most common congenital heart defects. It affects approximately 5 in 10,000 live births. Fallot was the name of the doctor who discovered this condition and the […]

Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage

Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage – T.A.P.V.D   What is T.A.P.V.D? T.A.P.V.D stands for Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage. It is an incredibly rare congenital heart defect (approximately 1 in 20,000 babies are born with it.) T.A.P.V.D is where the pulmonary veins, which bring oxygenated blood from the lungs and back to the heart, don’t […]

Remember that time?

Since everyone in Years 11 and above will be, or at least should be, studying for exams around this time of year, it might be fun to think about the actual process of learning/memory itself. Before we start though,  it’s worth mentioning that with a topic like this it is far too easy to start considering […]

The Types Of Haemoglobin Throughout Human Life

The Types of Haemoglobin Throughout Human Life.   Introduction: In this article I will be briefly running through the various forms of haemoglobin present in a human; from an embryo to an adult. Firstly let’s recap the role and structure of haemoglobin. Role: The role of haemoglobin is rather similar to a delivery truck driver. This […]

What is Type 1 Diabetes?

Although diabetes mellitus, or, more commonly, just ‘diabetes’, is a condition (or, technically, a group of conditions) affecting over 382 million people worldwide, it is a condition which many people don’t know much about. In this article, I will explore type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) as well as a potential stem cell treatment for it. […]

Some Benefits of Eating Apples

Some Benefits of Eating Apples In this short article I will be briefly explaining why apples are so good for your health and why the saying ‘An apple a day, keeps the doctor away’ is probably true. First of all, apples – like many fruit – contain a whole variety of vitamins and minerals. However […]

The Benefits of Oranges

The Benefits of Oranges Oranges are one of the most popular fruits on the planet and for good reason. Not only do they taste nice but they are bursting with vitamins and minerals. In this article I will be going over some of the benefits of oranges and why you should eat more of them. […]

The Real Meaning of Science with Liz Bonnin

On Thursday 6th November, I had the pleasure of interviewing BBC Television presenter Liz Bonnin. Liz has presented many TV programmes over her career, from BBC Bang Goes the Theory since it first aired in July of 2009 and Operation Snow Tiger to specials like the BBC Horizon Series to BBC Stargazing Live. She’s used her […]

The Death Virus: An Overview

Electron micrograph of the Ebola Virus. The characteristic thread-like structure can easily be seen.

The Ebola virus, or ‘Death Virus’ is a major concern due to the recent outbreak across West Africa, in countries such as Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia. The disease is now at an international scale, with precautions even being taken to prepare in the UK. So, what is Ebola and how is it so deadly? […]

Our Battle Against Bacteria

For ages now we’ve been battling an increasing problem – all caused by antibiotics. Antibiotics have dated all the way back to 1928 after Alexander Fleming; a bacteriologist discovered penicillin at London’s St Mary’s Hospital. Since then, such a small idea has grown and blossomed into the antibiotics we know today and has saved over […]

Is Altitude Training the best way to legally improve sporting performance?

Please follow the link below to view my Biology AS Coursework looking at the effectiveness of Altitude training on Elite Performers. Also explores the effectiveness of Performance Enhancing Energy Drinks and Ice Baths as a recovery method. Is altitude training the best way to legally improve sporting performance?

Science Bites

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For a few months now, I’ve been working on my eBook – Science Bites. Tomorrow it reaches the Amazon Kindle Store for £1.51. The idea behind the eBook was to make science fun and interesting – by using small, manageable pieces of information.  The eBook is about 180 pages long and covers topics from life […]