Biology

How Reliable is fMRI as a Neuroimaging Tool to Study Visual Experiences in Dreaming?

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Abstract The nature of dream is private. It is impossible to render the dreaming experience public until scientists discovered the association between dreaming and activation of the brain, followed by the invention of neuroimaging tools, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG), to study brain activities during dreaming. Hence, the construction of […]

Biology

A new perspective on Alzheimer’s

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According to the NHS, 850,000 people in the UK suffer from dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, but because of the lack of understanding of the disease and its pathology, there are currently no ways of treating it. However, a recent study by researchers at the University of Eastern Finland has […]

Biology

A Possible Consequence of Intravenously Infusing Antibodies into the Immune System

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Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN) From Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG) Treatment for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) Abstract: Infusions of IVIG are used to treat immune deficiency states, autoimmune disorders, and infections. IVIG Explanation and its relation to the Immune System: The immune system is a network of tissues and organs that work to defend the […]

Biology

Does Classical Music Improve Short Term Memory?

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A study by Zurafa Sakel.   Abstract The aim of this study is to explore whether classical music can improve short term memory in healthy volunteers. This may help learning of healthy people. It may also have a positive impact on communication and interaction as well as reducing agitation in dementia patients. This standardised prospective […]

Biology

How does one mistake lead to another?

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Imagine you are doing a multiple choice exam, and you know that you made a wrong choice in the first question. How would it affect how you answer the next question and your subsequent performance? Recent research finds out that our brain ‘pauses’ after we made a mistake, leading to the decrease in accuracy of […]

Neuroscience

Investigating the mouse brain for sex differences

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Genes located only on the Y chromosome are male specific and are thus not expressed in female cells, which results in gene dependent sex differences. One of the genes located on the Y chromosome and expressed only in male cells is Kdm5d. In our study, the hypothalamus was compared between female and male SF-1 KO, intact WT and gonadectomised WT mice to investigate the genetically and hormonally dependent differences between the expression of the protein encoded by the Kdm5d gene. Standard immunohistochemical staining on floating brain sections was used to visualize the Kdm5d protein and was further analysed under the microscope. Immunoexpression of Kdm5d protein was observed only in WT intact males, but was not detected in any other groups. This observation suggests that the expression of the Kdm5d protein is both genetically and hormonally conditioned. Further experiments with testosterone supplementation should be carried out to confirm our findings. 

Biology

Is it more important to understand the mind or the brain?

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  Here, we are faced with the fixed, biological complexity of the brain and the intricate concept, which is open to vast influential change, of one’s mind. The question proposes the task of whether the understanding of the brain or that of the mind holds more significance. However, what this discussion essentially requires is the […]

Neuroscience

How do recreational drugs work in the brain?

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The brain is the most complicated organ in the human body and is integral to human life. It is made up of a network of billions of brain cells, called neurones, which communicate with each other by sending and receiving electrical signals or chemical neurotransmitters. These chemicals attach to receptors on the receiving neurone which […]

Biology

The Brain Observatory

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Until about 40 years ago it was only possible to study the workings of the brain of a living individual by their outward appearance and proposed symptoms. In 1977 the MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scanner was developed and has since revolutionised the way in which we can investigate the anatomy and structure of the brain […]

Biology

Remember that time?

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Since everyone in Years 11 and above will be, or at least should be, studying for exams around this time of year, it might be fun to think about the actual process of learning/memory itself. Before we start though,  it’s worth mentioning that with a topic like this it is far too easy to start considering […]