Category archives for Issue 14

Particle Size Optimisation of Sand to Improve Water Treatment Efficiency

Fig1 (1)

More efficient treatment methods must be developed for ensuring the future availability of drinking water. The purpose of this project was to determine how particle size composition can be optimized to improve the performance of sand as a natural, inexpensive, sustainable water filtration media.
Calibrated sieves were used to selectively remove specific particle size fractions from all-purpose sand. Permeation times, together with pH and calcium concentrations of filtered water samples were used to prove that the water filtration rate of sand can be increased by 65% by removing the

An Introduction to Chaos Theory

Figure 2 (Phase Portrait) (1)

Nature is complex. It features a multitude of systems which, simple though they may be, are unpredictable in their behaviour, and seem not to be governed by the established deterministic laws of classical physics. For many years, scientists ignored such systems claiming that their unpredictability was a result of the limitations in the accuracy of measurements, or pure chance. Others even rejected them as unscientific. However, in the 1970s, a new theory evolved, which, if its supporters are right, explains the diversity we observe in nature and provides an accurate and scientific description of the unpredictable phenomena in question. This is known as “Chaos Theory”, and the purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to it together with fractals, the elaborate patterns which have become its emblem.

A Sense of Scale

Star Sizes

From sub-atomic to Universal, the range of scale tends towards infinity – in both directions. It could be argued that the small can be imagined as our minds can attempt to grapple with the concept of nothing and then it is only a case of imagining something getting infinitesimally closer to that limit. Yet with large scale we become stuck – viewing from or within a constricted radius of planet Earth it is difficult to put scale into perspective. We quickly lose our ability to compare the large with the larger which soon appear to be both insignificantly small in comparison to the larger still. This article helps rebalance scale. What you once thought big, you’ll think big no longer.

Uses of Hydrogen Peroxide


The human immune system largely depends on hydrogen peroxide to function – Lymphocytes located in the blood produce H2O2 and utilise its anti-bacterial properties to eradicate malicious bacteria in the blood stream. The body also produces it organically as a by-product of particular chemical processes, and it predominantly originates from the thyroid gland, lungs, and intestines.

The Aurorae

Red_and_green_auroras AURORAE

The Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis are one of the world’s seven natural wonders and have left men in awe for generations. This article investigates the causes of The Aurorae, the causes of the different colours and investigates Auroras on other planets such as the Jovian Aurora on Jupiter.