Medicine

How might physical activity contribute to psychological well-being and/or long-term positive outcomes?

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Abstract Humans are the products of their brains — the most complex organs in the known universe whose connectome reflects how people behave, talk, dream, plan, fight, and build the world around them. Their musculoskeletal system supports them, stabilises and moves their body so they move, seek food, and find mates to make another copy […]

Medicine

Despite medical and ethical complications, is xenotransplantation a potential solution to human organ shortages?

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ABSTRACT Xenotransplantation is a medical procedure, whereby animal organs are transplanted into humans. The organ crisis is an ever prominent issue, as globally the demand for healthy, well-functioning organs significantly exceeds the supply. The process of xenotransplantation has the potential to curb this issue, as well as allowing ethnic minorities to access transplanted organs more […]

Computer Science

Medical Image Translation Using Convolutional Neural Networks

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Deep convolutional neural network — DCNN - Deep Learning with Keras

Ashwin K. Avula (Student)1, Gian Marco. Conte M.D., Ph.D. (Mentor)2, Bradley J. Erickson M.D., Ph.D. (Mentor)2 I.Abstract Gliomas are a category of tumors that affect the brain and spinal regions. These tumors are known to grow alongside and infiltrate normal brain tissue, making surgical removal difficult and complicating treatment procedures.[1] In these cases, several Magnetic […]

Biology

Covid-19: A guide to epidemiology

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 By Raman Gnanalingham Abstract In this article, I will outline the key features of epidemiology, which is the study of epidemics. This will be in relation to the current Covid-19 outbreak, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. I will also discuss the susceptibility of certain population demographics and the reasons as to why the virus has […]

Biology

Hygeia and Panacea in a Machine

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“Diseases desperate grown, By desperate appliance are relieved, Or not at all” William Shakespeare – Hamlet Abstract: The ability that’s appreciated the most in a doctor is the art of diagnosis. With the advent of fMRI, we are getting insights into the human decision-making process. In fact, we have narrowed down the process of diagnosis […]

Medicine

Running a Risk

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Sports are encouraged more than ever before and people who do sports are fitter, healthier and can even live longer than those who don’t exercise regularly.[1] In fact, in a study observing almost 20,000 men and women from Copenhagen, Denmark, researchers found that light to moderate jogging was associated with an increase in survival: 6.2 […]

Biology

A Cambridge-London Symbiosis

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“A scientific discovery, invention or advance that still affects the world today” ABSTRACT This article discusses the impact of Watson and Crick’s model of DNA structure as published in the journal, ‘Nature’ in April 1953. Discussed is the significance for personalised and genomic medicine, as the future of the field and progress in prophylaxis. Reflection […]

Ethics

In vivo modelling within pharmacological research, its limitations and alternative methods of research

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Abstract In vivo or animal testing has been relied on for years in drug development for studying drug dosages, therapeutic indices, contraindications, mechanisms of action and adverse reactions of drugs undergoing various levels of testing. This article aims to review the importance and basis of in vivo models in drug development and discuss the ethical […]

Medicine

Performance of Diseases and Applications for Medicine

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The purpose of this article is to review Annemarie Mol’s paper “Pathology and the clinic: An ethnographic presentation of two atheroscleroses,” and discuss its implications in medicine. Mol is a philosopher and ethnographer (i.e., person who researches social and cultural relations1), and her paper describes her study in a hospital in the Netherlands examining the […]

Medicine

Personality and Healthcare Decision-Making

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Abstract Certain personality traits can affect healthcare decision-making. Personality traits such as neuroticism, extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience can influence the patients’ perception of their health status and treatment plans. This paper explores how the aforementioned personality traits help to determine patients’ willingness to participate in making decisions concerning their healthcare. Introduction Personality […]

Health

Vaccine Myths

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Clare Mangubats picture

Since their conception, vaccinations have contributed tremendously to society by allowing populations to build immunity to deadly diseases. For example, this technology eradicated smallpox worldwide by 1980[1] and decreased incidences of polio by more than 99% in the United States since 1988.[2] However, confidence in vaccination’s ability to prevent disease contraction seems to have decreased […]

Health

Is adrenaline life-saving or deadly? Should it be the standard of care treatment for cardiopulmonary resuscitation?

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Abstract Adrenaline is commonly used in the treatment of anaphylaxis and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, its use in CPR may cause adverse neurological effects. Moreover, adrenaline overdose and overexposure to adrenaline may both lead to fatality. This is a literature review on the mechanism of action of adrenaline, its uses, and its effects. Adrenaline is […]

Biology

Cautions of Biomedical Evidence

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Biomedical evidence is the foundation for Western medicine and research. It helps with the creation of pharmacologic therapy. It can prove the success of treatment and elucidate the relationship between variables. It can validate scientific claims and inform future directions for research. It helps with deciding funding for different health policies and programs. It also […]

Biology

Smoking causes cancers in other parts of the body too; is it true?

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Although the scientific revelation between the causal correlation between smoking and lung cancer has now arguably become “common knowledge, many people seem unaware that lung cancer is not the only cancer that smokers become susceptible to. Smoking is known to cause at least 15 different types of cancer: lung, larynx, oesophagus, oral cavity, nasopharynx, pharynx, […]

Medicine

Development of orthopaedic tissue interfaces

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ABSTRACT Abundant tissue-to-tissue interfaces, present between bone, tendon and muscle, demonstrate mechanical and structural gradients from soft tissue to hard tissue, which permits cellular communication and load transfer. These allow joint motion and stabilisation and are susceptible to damage through abnormal activity or trauma. A major concern in the field of orthopaedic tissue engineering is […]

Medicine

Study of Convolutional Neural Networks for Early Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy

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Abstract Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in the working-age population of the developed world. Presently, detecting DR is a manual, time-consuming process that requires a trained ophthalmologist to examine and evaluate digital fundus photographs of the retina. Computer machine learning technologies such as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have emerged as an […]