Biology

A new perspective on Alzheimer’s

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According to the NHS, 850,000 people in the UK suffer from dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia, but because of the lack of understanding of the disease and its pathology, there are currently no ways of treating it. However, a recent study by researchers at the University of Eastern Finland has […]

Medicine

Gene Therapy for Sensorineural Hearing Loss

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Abstract Sensorineural hearing loss is an impairment that affects more than 360 million people worldwide. Recent studies suggest that 1.1 billion people could develop the disease during their lives.¹ Despite its widespread effects, the medical disability currently has no cure. However, gene therapy is an emerging treatment, designed to tackle the root causes of this […]

Biology

A Possible Consequence of Intravenously Infusing Antibodies into the Immune System

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Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN) From Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG) Treatment for Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) Abstract: Infusions of IVIG are used to treat immune deficiency states, autoimmune disorders, and infections. IVIG Explanation and its relation to the Immune System: The immune system is a network of tissues and organs that work to defend the […]

Biology

How can cancer be targeted without killing healthy cells?

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Targeted Therapy: a tremendous solution Abstract: Targeted therapy is a relatively new method of curing cancer that uses drugs to attack targets on which cancer cells’ growth closely depend. [1] By attacking the proteins or enzymes responsible for their abnormal growth, its effects are amplified. Targeted therapy is successful in curing many cancer patients, it […]

Medicine

A New Look At Pancreatic Cancer

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Inhibitory Effects of Flufenamic Acid on YAP-TEAD Activity through the Hippo Signaling Pathway in Murine Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cells (LTPA) Robin Hu Abstract Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, accounting for about 85% of pancreatic cancer cases, has poor prognosis and survival rates; novel therapies are needed [1,2]. A core pathway in cancer development is the Hippo Signaling Pathway: a […]

Chemistry

History of Arabic Alchemy

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While reading Jim Al-Khalili’s book “Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science” it became apparent that scientific collaboration is essential to achieve meaningful progress. Great advances were made in the medical profession during the Golden Age. The Golden Age occurred during the Abbasid rule which was between the 8th century and the 12th century CE. […]

Medicine

How Positron Emission Tomography works

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This post aims to explain what positron emission tomography (PET) is and how it works. PET is a unique type of medical imaging that reveals information about the physiology of organs and tissues, unlike CT or MRI machines which only yield images of anatomy. By doing this, PET scans can often detect irregularities such as […]

Medicine

Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Young Athletes

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Sudden Cardiac arrest in the young may seem uncommon (2 deaths per 100,000 people) but is a fatal end for many passionate athletes. These tragedies appear to be unexpected as they are asymptomatic leading fans and spectators to wonder how a perfectly ‘healthy’ football player could suddenly collapse. Athletes under the age of 35 predominantly […]

Biology

PCSK9 Inhibitors – a solution for familial hypercholesterolaemia and ischaemic heart disease?

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PCSK9 stands for Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 and it was first discovered in 2003[1] by Dr. Seidah et al. and it is a 692-amino acid glycoprotein.[2] PCSK9 is secreted by the liver into the circulation[3] and it controls the “number of low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR) on the cell surface”[4] and therefore ultimately the […]

Biology

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

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What is Hypoplastic left heart syndrome? Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare congenital heart defect which occurs in approximately 1 in 5000 babies. The term ‘hypoplastic’ refers to the underdevelopment of a tissue or an organ. Therefore HLHS involves the underdevelopment, or sometimes absence, of left-sided heart structures. For example, the left ventricle, […]

Biology

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

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What is Hypoplastic left heart syndrome? Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare congenital heart defect which occurs in approximately 1 in 5000 babies. The term ‘hypoplastic’ refers to the underdevelopment of a tissue or an organ. Therefore HLHS involves the underdevelopment, or sometimes absence, of left-sided heart structures. For example, the left ventricle, […]

Biology

Tetralogy of Fallot

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Tetralogy of Fallot What is Tetralogy of Fallot? Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect (one which is present at birth.) In fact, it is one of the most common congenital heart defects. It affects approximately 5 in 10,000 live births. Fallot was the name of the doctor who discovered this condition and the […]

Biology

Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage

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Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage – T.A.P.V.D   What is T.A.P.V.D? T.A.P.V.D stands for Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Drainage. It is an incredibly rare congenital heart defect (approximately 1 in 20,000 babies are born with it.) T.A.P.V.D is where the pulmonary veins, which bring oxygenated blood from the lungs and back to the heart, don’t […]

Biology

The Use of MMPs in Cancer Research

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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that are highly expressed in tumours and are thought to have an important role in the advancement of cancer. Of particular interest is their contribution to metastasis – the spread of cancer around the body. As a result, they are currently being researched with the endeavour to develop new anticancer agents, with inhibitors of MMPs considered to be a viable option for future use in chemotherapy. Furthermore, these enzymes could be used to improve the way in which the body metabolises anti-cancer drugs, a method in which the drugs are only activated in the presence of MMPs in the tumour, and so reducing the potential for harmful side effects.

Biology

What is Type 1 Diabetes?

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Although diabetes mellitus, or, more commonly, just ‘diabetes’, is a condition (or, technically, a group of conditions) affecting over 382 million people worldwide, it is a condition which many people don’t know much about. In this article, I will explore type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) as well as a potential stem cell treatment for it. […]

Biology

The Death Virus: An Overview

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The Ebola virus, or ‘Death Virus’ is a major concern due to the recent outbreak across West Africa, in countries such as Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia. The disease is now at an international scale, with precautions even being taken to prepare in the UK. So, what is Ebola and how is it so deadly? […]

Ethics

What are the current treatments of schizophrenia?

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What are the current treatments of schizophrenia? Abstract I discuss the available treatments for schizophrenia. I comment upon the socio-economic issues arising from living with schizophrenia and the aforementioned treatments. I examine a case study in management of schizophrenia in the NHS. Furthermore, I evaluate two alternative methods to control schizophrenia – one holistic and the […]