Preliminary Evidence: The Impact of Contingency Management on Depression and Anxiety Among Crack Cocaine Dependent Patients in Brazil

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Recently an epidemic has occurred in São Paulo, Brazil’s largest city of over 11 million people, where in an inner city community known as “Crackloandia”, hundreds of people are openly using crack cocaine. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of the treatment method known as contingency management (CM) paired with standard treatment (STCM) to see whether or not this treatment would alter depression and or anxiety in the population. It was hypothesized that CM would lessen the severity of anxiety and depression in the population while they received treatment for their crack cocaine use as a secondary, indirect effect. All data for the clinical trial was collected from 45 individuals seeking treatment for crack cocaine use disorder. This study found that CM effectively reduces depression and anxiety scores in patients who abuse crack cocaine. The implications of this research find it likely that CM is a treatment option capable of treating patients with a comorbidity of anxiety, depression, and substance abuse disorders.

Future-proof agriculture: Calcium Alginate Beads

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Contents 1. Abstract 2. Introduction 3. How do you make the calcium alginate bead? 4. How do slow-release calcium alginate beads work? 5. Advantages of the slow discharge of biofertilizers 6. Behaviour of bead in soil 7. Bead production: analysis of the method 8. Suggested biofertilizer composition 9. Storing the beads 10. Conclusion 11. References […]

Psychosocial Stress and Its Effect on Cardiovascular Diseases

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Biology, Health, Health Sciences, Medicine, Other, Psychology

Abstract There is a vast amount of research and analysis between the exact impact of stress on the human body, with a substantial amount of it exploring an association with cardiovascular diseases, see the details of the specialist to book an appointment. The review has examined some of the common psychosocial stressors such as the […]

How to Look for Alien Life

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Astrobiology, Astrophysics, Other, Space

The possibility of extraterrestrial life has been discussed for centuries, in both scientific and fictitious work. But it wasn’t until 1992 that the first exoplanet (planet outside of our solar system) was detected, and 2001 that the first exoplanet in a habitable zone was detected [1]. This makes exoplanetology and astrobiology relatively new fields of […]

Martha Chase: The Underappreciated Geneticist

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Martha Chase was an American geneticist. In 1952, during the “Hershey-Chase Experiments,” she accompanied Alfred Hershey, helping to experimentally confirm that DNA, not protein, is the genetic material of life [1]. This discovery was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1969, yet excluded Chase [2]. There is not much information about the […]

Professor Nergis Mavalvala

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Nergis Mavalvala [1] Introduction Nergis Mavalvala champions diversity as the Curtis and Kathleen Marble Professor of Astrophysics and the Associate Head of the Department of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) [1], a female in a male-dominated field, but that’s just the beginning. She is also a Pakistani-American, and openly queer. A professor […]

Alan Turing: The Pioneer and Revolutionary

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Alan Turning; Courtesy of The New York Times Abstract:  Alan Turing was a homosexual English mathematician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist, known for his famous work in cracking the Nazi Germany communication code called the Enigma code and developing the first blueprints to what became the modern computer. However, aside from his revolutionary work in these […]

Joan Roughgarden and Social Selection

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Joan Roughgarden, courtesy of Stanford University Profiles  LGBTQ+ Pride month is celebrated every June in remembrance of the Stonewall riots to champion the dignity and visibility of LGBTQ+ individuals. It is estimated that LGBT people are around  20% less represented in STEM fields than expected.1 Therefore, it is important we champion the inclusivity of LGBTQ+ individuals […]

Pride Month 2020

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A Pride Month protest taking place in New York City. Courtesy of Introduction  On June 26th, 1969, police in New York City had raided Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in Greenwich Village. The bar was just one among many havens for those in the gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender community. This riot had inspired […]

SPACE-X and Our Space Economy

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Despite our fascination with outer space for decades, the promise of commercial space travel remains difficult to attain. However, that may have all changed two weeks ago, when two NASA astronauts were sent into orbit in a SPACE-X rocket. The first major launch in nearly ten years, the mission took place during an unusual time […]

The NASA and Space X Launch: The Possible Beginning of a New Age of Space Travel?

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Abstract: Due to high costs, the renowned American space company, NASA, has not been able to ferry astronauts to space from American soil for almost a decade. This has left American astronauts dependent on Russian space agencies for travel and has immensely staggered their advancements in space research and exploration. Unfortunately, this has come at […]

What is the correlation between the rising levels of pollution in 19th century Britain and present-day China relative to the increasing cases of irreversible physiological repercussions to the systema respiratorium?

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Abstract This article focuses on exploring the correlation between the rising levels of pollution and the increasing reports of respiratory disorders in the civil population. In order to provide evidence for such claim, Particulate Matter 2.5 (PM2.5) and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) levels in both 19th century Great Britain and present-day China (two countries that […]

The rising number of shark attacks in Western Australia – just a side effect of another amazing recovery?

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ABSTRACT Eastern Australia is famous for its shark attacks but, since the turn of the millennium, the number of shark attacks is rising significantly in Western Australia. To identify possible reasons for this trend, we collected data about shark sightings/detections and analyzed data of all recorded shark attacks in Western Australia since 1900. The data […]


Differences Between Non-Biomedical Forms of Knowing and Biomedical Forms of Knowing

Posted Posted in Biology, Other evidence informs Western ways of knowing in medicine and research. In other words, it is how we know when someone is sick (e.g., a person’s body temperature above 100.4 degrees Farhenheit informs us that they have a fever1), when two variables are positively correlated (e.g., a Pearson’s coefficient of close to 1.0 informs us […]