Astrophysics

Dark Matter Candidates and their Detection

The existence of Dark Matter is widely accepted in the scientific community, but its identity is still an enigma. Numerous independent gravitational observations seen cannot be explained by the Newtonian mechanics of the visible mass. A rather simple hypothesis suggests the existence of new particle or particles, termed as Dark Matter, to give a rationale for these observations. This paper seeks to give a comprehensive overview on the existing theories of dark matter candidates and the status of the dark matter search. This review begins with a description of the Standard Model of Elementary Particles followed by a brief discussion on the principle problems unexplained by this model. We then compare the theoretical predictions with the actual galactic rotation curve of the Andromeda Galaxy and its scientific implications, supporting the claim that dark matter exists. We investigate the prominent dark matter models including WIMPs, Axions, and Sterile Neutrinos, critically examining each of their theoretical motivations, production mechanisms, characteristics, and interactions with the standard model. We also explore a wide range of their direct and indirect detection methods- particle colliders, astronomical observations and data, advanced detectors, and many more- in detail. Furthermore, we give the reader insights into selective experiments being conducted that claim to give possible signals of dark matter. We conclude our paper with a discussion of contemporary and upcoming experiments to detect dark matter. Future experimentation will be critical to the development of this field. Old and new candidates will inevitably be ruled-out and developed as dark matter theory and detection methods continue to progress forward.

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Dark Matter Candidates & their Detection

Abstract – The existence of Dark Matter is widely accepted in the scientific community, but its identity is still an enigma. Numerous independent gravitational observations seen cannot be explained by the Newtonian mechanics of the visible mass. A rather simple hypothesis suggests the existence of new particle or particles, termed as Dark Matter, to give

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An Ingenious Perseverance: The Search for Life on Mars

Abstract: Recently, NASA’s Perseverance rover (equipped with the Ingenuity helicopter) landed on Mars and is investigating the crater Jezero, a place where scientists think they might fight find possible signs of life through the leftover marks of deltas and rivers and the rocks that might contain life-signalling minerals. The Perseverance rover is only a part

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Cosmological Origins and Evidence of Antimatter

Shivam Dixit, Mallya Aditi International School, [email protected] Abstract – This paper aims to outline and analyze changes in the state of antimatter through the formation of the universe, exploring the relevant stages of cosmological history to study baryon asymmetry. Theoretical models which explain or address the observed phenomena of antimatter are explored. Finally, this paper

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About Mars: A Review of the Characteristics of the Martian Planet

Abstract The colonization of Mars has been a topic of much discussion, and in recent years the media has had plenty to publish on this topic making this venture appear to be relatively easy. However, despite Mars being a neighbouring planet, it is an alien planet with an inhospitable environment. This paper — based on

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A brief overview about how the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory works

By Chinmay Pala Abstract In this paper, the author explains how the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detects gravitational waves and goes over the differences between initial LIGO and advanced LIGO. Beginning by explaining the formation of gravitational waves, the author then gives an overview of the history and locations of LIGO. In the main

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Exploration of whether human colonisation is possible within our solar system

Abstract With the advancement of technology and scientific understandings, humans have been able to investigate many different astronomical bodies in outer space. In this review report, I explore some of the many worlds of our solar system in which humans could potentially colonise in future. It was Professor Michelle Dougherty, from the Imperial College London,

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