NEW! A short video introduction to the world’s peer review science journal written, edited & produced by 12-20 year-olds.
Our project is a theoretical Computer Science and Mathematics project that aimed to explore the outcomes of optimal play scenarios in Erickson’s Square Game by applying the Minimax algorithm to the game.
Why do people age? This has always been an age-old question of humanity. We all know that we do not live forever and that life on our planet will end one day. Life comes with death, but it is a natural process. It is an imposed order that mankind lives up to.
Until the 1970’s, people did not know what telomeres were and what their function is in our organs. Hence, aging had been a mystery. Between 1975 and 1977 Elisabeth Blackburn, a postdoctoral fellow at Yale University, together with Joseph Gail discovered telomeres. Later in 2009 Elisabeth Blackburn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her discovery.
This paper hypothesizes a connection between gravity and entropy. Gravity, which has not been successfully unified with other fundamental forces yet, is now alternatively explained as an entropic force that is caused by change in information associated with the positions of material bodies. We consider the statistical definition of entropy and ultimately conclude that gravity and entropy are two sides of the same coin and their inter-conversion is what we call ‘time’.
Current diagnostic approaches to neurodegenerative diseases are often flawed as they are often invasive and cannot effectively diagnose early-onset dementia. Antibody-based therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases are very promising but often lack specificity to certain biomarkers and require invasive methods of administration such as a lumbar puncture. In this study I report a novel quantum-dot (QD) conjugated bispecific-antibody (BsAb) diagnosis system designed for Alzheimer’s disease. This structure is easy to synthesize and displays specificity to oligomeric amyloid-beta (Aβ), which is often present before Alzheimer’s symptoms starts to manifest. The bispecific antibody also binds with a weak affinity to transferrin receptors – thus potentially allowing it to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via receptor-mediated transcytosis and reducing the necessity for extremely- invasive means of administration such as a lumbar puncture. The CdTe/ZnS QDs conjugated to the BsAb have multimodal, non-invasive MRI and fNIR imaging capabilities and also displayed allow cytotoxicity to neuronal cells. The synthesized nanoparticles composed of CdTe/ZnS with a Gd-DOTA doped silica shell also displayed therapeutic properties by immobilizing the toxic oligomeric Aβ and increasing neuronal viability. These novel BsAb-QD structures display promising diagnostic and therapeutic properties and represent an important evolution in neurodegenerative drug design.
I synthesized a novel nanoparticle-bound antibody for the earlier diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease which proves to be less invasive and more accurate in comparison to existing tests of its kind.
Genes located only on the Y chromosome are male specific and are thus not expressed in female cells, which results in gene dependent sex differences. One of the genes located on the Y chromosome and expressed only in male cells is Kdm5d. In our study, the hypothalamus was compared between female and male SF-1 KO, intact WT and gonadectomised WT mice to investigate the genetically and hormonally dependent differences between the expression of the protein encoded by the Kdm5d gene. Standard immunohistochemical staining on floating brain sections was used to visualize the Kdm5d protein and was further analysed under the microscope. Immunoexpression of Kdm5d protein was observed only in WT intact males, but was not detected in any other groups. This observation suggests that the expression of the Kdm5d protein is both genetically and hormonally conditioned. Further experiments with testosterone supplementation should be carried out to confirm our findings.
The UK Space Design Competition (UKSDC) is light years ahead of your average after school science club. The challenge is open to all secondary students in the UK, inviting schools to recreate their own aerospace company and respond to a futuristic proposal for the relocation of a space colony. Throughout the year, the schools compete either at regional heats or in an online video competition, the winners of which attend the UK final at Imperial College London in March. Twelve students from the winning team will be invited to NASA to represent UK in the international final later during the summer. We’ve been lucky enough to catch up with some of the 2015-16 winners and technical volunteers to hear about their experiences.
Neuroscience is a relatively new field of study that explores the brain and the nervous system, the great controllers of our body. This article focuses on the frontal lobes of the brain, expatiating on its functions and how their dysfunction could give rise to various psychological disorders. It also deals with the history of interpretations about the brain, as well as technological modes through which scientists can now examine the brain — e.g. the MRI and the PET scan.
Honey: sweet, delicious and great on toast! After proving a hit in our kitchen cupboards, honey is now making its way into our medicine cabinets too; next time you have a sore throat you may be reaching for the honey jar. This study looks at three different types of honey and their medicinal qualities against bacteria. Standard processed honey, unprocessed honey and medicinal grade Manuka honey all killed samples of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, proving all of these honeys to have antibacterial properties. The Manuka honey, however, had a greater antibacterial effect against both bacteria, suggesting that Manuka honey is the best for medicinal use.
In the recent decade, Virtual Reality (VR) has become more common through a range of systems including computer-powered head-mounted displays (HMDs) and smartphone-powered headsets. It has presented both designers and developers alike with a new field filled with unexplored potential. In this article, a new and inexpensive approach to VR is explored, allowing entry-level smartphones to run powerful computer-based VR experiences wirelessly through Bluetooth with relative high levels of performance. The project was recognised as a European and African Finalist in the Google Science Fair 2015.
In this article I will explain what RNAi is, the genetic mechanisms behind it and why it deserves the considerable attention it has been receiving. Expanding on these basic mechanisms, I will go onto explore some of the latest RNAi trials involving Huntington’s disease and cancer. I will highlight the complications associated with the treatment of these complex diseases and importantly, why RNAi is seen as a viable therapeutic pathway.
The decline in interest for science by the general public can be explained by the human tendency to perceive logarithimically rather than linearly. Science education can address this problem to alter the destiny of science.
In this article, I will explore the complexity of lung cancer and why it is classed as one of the most deadly cancers. As well as this, I will explain how different types of lung cancer are classified depending on the cells present in tumours and how the classification affects the treatment a patient is given. Furthermore, I will look at the current treatments for lung cancer and how they are used. And last but not least, I will explain what Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) are and how they may be able to help scientists diagnose and treat lung cancer in the near future.
This paper explores and proposes a more efficient method for the synthesis of organic compounds using a technique of process intensification – condensing synthesis and purification into one step. Studies were conducted regarding the production of acetylsalicylic acid (more commonly known as Aspirin) and a hypothetical installation was designed. The results are of significance as they improve upon current production methods, can be used in the synthesis of many different chemicals and could have direct applications to chemical production on an industrial scale.